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                            柏拉图主义数学真理的神学化及其解构

                            柏拉图主义数学真理的神学化及其解构

                            2020年03月22日 00:00:00
                            来源:哲学园

                            柏拉图主义数学真理的神学化及其解构

                            HUANGQINAN

                            LAIYUAN:《SHANXISHIFANDAXUEXUEBAO.ZHESHEBAN》

                            作者简介:信用棋牌 黄秦安(1962—),男,陕西西安市人,陕西师范大学数学系副教授,教育学硕士。陕西师范大学 数学系,陕西 西安710062

                            内容提要: 从社会文化层面剖析了“柏拉图主义”数学真理观的产生及其在文艺复兴和近代科学中的历史演变。通过对数学真理与基督教神学从融合到决裂的恢宏的思想变革与认识进步的分析,勾勒出了数学真理曲折的发展轨迹并最终达到科学意义上的真理观念的艰难历程。

                            关键词: 柏拉图主义/数学真理/基督教神学/文艺复兴/近代科学/Platonism/mathematical truth/Christian theology/Renaissance/modern science

                            标题注释: 基金项目:教育部人文社会科学“九五”规划项目(96JC720003)。

                            原发信息: 《陕西师范大学学报.哲社版》2000年第03期

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                            信用棋牌ER、SHUXUEYUSHENXUE、ZIRANDESANWEIYITI

                            FASHENGZAIWENYIFUXINGSHIQIDEYIXIEZHONGDASHIJIANWEIKEXUEDEFAZHANTIGONGLEBIJIAOYOULIDESHEHUIWENHUATURANG。LIRUJIAOHUANGNIGULAWUSHIZANZHUXINRENWENZHUYIDEXUESHUYANJIU,CHANGDAOZONGJIAOWENHUAYUSHISUWENHUARONGHE,ZHEIXIEJUCUODOUYOULIYUKEXUEDEJINBU。ERZONGJIAOGAIGEYUNDONGKANCHENGWENHUAFUXINGYUNDONGDEJIEZUO。ZONGJIAOGAIGEJICHENMEN、YAYIDEZONGJIAOCHUANTONGSHILIYIQIANGLIEDECHONGJI。TEBIESHIJIAERWENDEQINGJIAOZHUYISIXIANG,JIDADIJIEFANGLERENDESIXIANG。MAKESI·WEIBORENWEIJIAERWENQINGJIAOZHUYI“DUIYUKEXUEDEFAZHANSHIYIZHONGTEBIEYOULIDEJIDUJIAODETAIDU”[4](P67)。MODUNCONGZHONGZONGJIEDAO:“ZAIQINGJIAOLUNLIZHONG,LIXINGZHUYIHEJINGYANZHUYIDEJIEHESHIRUCIXIANZHU,TAXINGCHENGLEJINDAIKEXUEDEJINGSHENBENZHI。”[4](P69)SUIRANWEIBODEPANDUANWEIBIQUEQIE,DANQIXIASHUDUANYANSHIYOUDAOLIDE,JI“YUQITASHEHUIDEZONGJIAOJIAZHIXIANGBI,XILA—JIDUJIAOSHEHUIDEZONGJIAOJIAZHIDUIYUJINGYANKEXUEDEFAZHANGENGYOULI”。[4](P67)ZAIZHEIXIEGUANDIANHETAIDUZHONGYOULIANGDIANDUIJINDAIKEXUEDEKAITUOZHECHANSHENGLEHENSHENDEYINGXIANG,YISHISHANGDISHILIXINGDEYIJIZIRANDETIANDIWANWUFANYINGLESHANGDIDELIXINGDEGUANDIAN,ERSHIRENKEYIZAIZIRANDETIANDIWANWUZHONGFAXIANLIXINGZHIXUDEGUANDIAN。WOMENRENWEI,ZONGJIAOGAIGESUIBUSHICUJINKEXUEDEZUIZHUYAOYINSU,ZHISHAOYEQIDAOLETUIBOZHULANDEZUOYONG。

                            CONGSHENXUELIXINGZOUXIANGSHUXUELIXINGHEKEXUELIXING,SHANGYOUSHIFENJIANNANDELUYAOZOU。WEIDADESHIDAIHUHUANWEIDADERENWU。JIALILVEZAICHONGFENMUYUGUXILASHUXUESIXIANGHEWENYIFUXINGXIANBEISIXIANGDEJICHUSHANG,BASHUXUEZHENLIXINGJIQIYUYUZHOUDEGUANXIJIAYISHENHUA。TAXIEDAO:“ZHEXUE[ZIRAN]SHIXIEZAINEIBENYONGYUANZAIWOMENYANQIANDEWEIDASHUBENLIDE——WOZHIDESHIYUZHOU——DANSHI,WOMENRUGUOBUXIANXUEHUISHULISUOYONGDEYUYAN,ZHANGWOSHULIDEFUHAO,JIUBUNENGLEJIETA,ZHEISHUSHIYONGSHUXUEYUYANXIECHUDE,FUHAOSHISANJIAOXING、YUANXINGHEBIEDEJIHETUXIANG。MEIYOUTAMENDEBANGZHU,SHILIANYIGEZIYEBUHUIRENSHIDE;MEIYOUTAMEN,RENJIUZAIYIGEHEIANDEMIGONGLILAOERWUGONGDIYOUDANGZHE。”[5](P33)ZHUMINGDESHUXUESHIJIAKELAIYINCENGDUIJIALILVEDESHUXUESIXIANGJIQIYUDUISHANGDIDEXINYANGZHIJIANDEGUANXIZUOCHURUXIAPINGJIA:“ZIRANJIESHIJIANDANERYOUZHIXUDE,TADEXINGDONGSHIGUIZEERQIEBIYAODE。TAANZHAOWANSHANERBUBIANDESHUXUEGUILVHUODONGZHE。SHENSHENGDELIZHI,SHIZIRANJIEZHONGLIXINGSHIWUDEYUANQUAN。SHANGDIBAYANMIDESHUXUEBIYAOXINGFANGRUSHIJIE,RENZHIYOUTONGGUOJIANKUNULICAINENGLINGHUIZHEIGEBIYAOXING。YINCI,SHUXUEZHISHIBUDANSHIJUEDUIZHENLI,ERQIEXIANGSHENGJINGNEIYANG,MEIJUMEIXINGDOUSHISHENSHENGBUKEQINFANDE。SHIJISHANG,SHUXUEGENGYOUYUE,YINWEIDUISHENGJINGYOUXUDUOBUTONGDEYIJIAN,ERDUISHUXUEDEZHENLI,ZEBUHUIYOUBUTONGDEYIJIAN。”[5](P33)

                            JIALILVEZHEIZHONGBASHUXUEYUSHENXUERONGWEIYITI,SHENZHIRENWEISHUXUEYOUGAOYUSHENXUEKENENGDESIXIANG,DIANJILESHUXUEZUIZHONGBAITUOSHENXUEDERENSHIJICHU,CHONGFENFANYINGLEZHENGGEJINDAIKEXUEQIMENGSHIDAIDEKEXUESIXIANG。ZAISHENXUEBINGLENGYIBODEFUGAIXIA,SHUXUEZHENLIDECHUNCHAOKAISHIYONGDONG。RUGUOSHUOZAIWENYIFUXINGCHUQI,DUISHUXUEDESONGYANGSHIWEILEZANMEISHANGDI,SHUXUEZHISHISHENXUEDESHINVDEHUA,NEIMEDAOLEJIALILVESHI,QINGKUANGZEFASHENGLEHENDABIANHUA,SHUXUEKAISHIYUSHENXUEFENTINGKANGLI,SHANGDICHENGWEIJINXINGHELISHUXUEYANJIUYUKEXUEHUODONGDEYIKUAIZHAOPAI。DIKAERJINYIBUBIAOMINGLESHUXUE—SHANGDI—ZIRANDESANWEIYITI。DIKAERXIANGXIN“SHANGDICUNZAI。YINWEISHANGDIBUQIPIANWOMEN,SUOYIWOMENJIUNENGBAOZHENG:ZAIZHIGUANSHANGHENMINGBAIDESHUXUEGONGLI,YIJITONGGUOCHUNCUIDESIXIANGCHENGXUCONGZHEIXIEGONGLIDECHULAIDETUILUN,QUESHIKEYINGYONGYUWULISHIJIE,YINERTAMENDOUSHIZHENLI。YOUCIKEJIAN,SHANGDIYIDINGSHIANZHAOSHUXUEDINGLVLAIJIANLIZIRANJIEDE”。[5](P7 )DIKAERDEJIANJIESHIJINDAIKEXUEZHICHUZHENGGESHUXUEZHENLIGUANDEGAIKUO。“TAXIANGXINTAYOUMINGBAIERQINGCHUDESHUXUEGAINIAN……ZHEIXIEGAINIANQUESHICUNZAI,ERQIESHIYONGHENGDE、BUBIANDE,TAMENDECUNZAI,BUYILAIYURENSHIFOUZHENGXIANGZHETAMEN。YINCI,SHUXUESHIYONGHENGDIKEGUANDICUNZAIZHEDE”。[5](P7 )ZHEISHIZUIDIANXINGDEBOLATUZHUYI。

                            LAIBUNIZIZAIQISUOJIANLIDEXINGERSHANGXUETIXIZHONG,TONGYANGJISHANGDILIUCHULEYIGEXIANZHUDEWEIZHI。BIJIAOKANLAI,LAIBUNIZIDESHUXUESIXIANGZHONGDESHENXUESECAIGENGNONGZHONGYIXIE。LAIBUNIZIBEIMIAOHUICHENG“SHOUJUKEXUEDEQIZHI,KOUCHANGSHANGDIDEZANGE”DESHUXUEJIAHEZHEXUEJIA,SHISHIFENTIEQIEDE。LAIBUNIZIZAIJIESHITADEWEIJIFENWEISHENMEKEYIYINGYONGYUXIANSHISHISHUO,SHIJIEYUSHANGDISHITONGYIDE,FOUDINGSHUXUEDEZHENLIJIUSHIFOUDINGSHANGDI。ZAIZHENLIGUANSHANG,LAIBUNIZIBAZHENLIHUAFENWEITUILIZHENLIHESHISHIZHENLILIANGZHONG,QIANZHEDEDIANXINGDAIBIAOJIUSHISHUXUE。ZAIZHENLIBIAOZHUNSHANG,LAIBUNIZIZHUZHANGCAIYONGLUOJIXUEDEMAODUNLVYUCHONGZULIYOULVQUPANDUANGUANNIANSHIFOUWEIZHENLI。TAXIANGXIN,SHANGDIDECUNZAIJIUSHIYIZHONGKEYI“XIANTIANDIZHENGMING”DETUILIZHENLI。“ZHAOLAIBUNIZIKANLAI,SHUXUESHIGAOSUWOMENSHENMESHIKENENGDEYIMENKEXUE……ANZHAOTADEGUANDIAN,SHANGDI,ZHEIWEIZUIGAOJIDESHUXUEJIA,TONGGUOZAISUOYOUKENENGDESHIJIEZHONGXUANZECHUZUIFENGFUDUOCAIDEYIGE,ERCHUANGZAOCHUWOMENZHEIGETEDINGSHIJIE。”[6](P242)

                            WEISHENMECONGWENYIFUXINGKAISHI,DUIYUSHANGDIDEZANMEICHENGWEIJIHUMEIYIWEIJIECHUKEXUEJIA、SHUXUEJIAZHONGKOUYICIDEXINGWEI?HUOXUZAIZHONGDUODEZHUIQIUZHENLIDEKEXUEJIAHESHUXUEJIADEXINLINGSHENCHU,KEXUEYUZHENLICAISHITAMENZHENZHENGZHONGQINGDE,ZHISHIWEILESHISHUXUEHEKEXUEYANJIUHEFAHUAERBUDEBUJUQISHANGDIDEQIHAO。YINWEIYISHANGDIDEMINGYICONGSHISHUXUEYANJIU,SHIYIZHONGFEICHANGZIRANERTANGTANGZHENGZHENGDELIYOU,QIZHONGDEKUZHONGZHIYOUNEIGESHIDAIDERENCAIKETICHA。DANYEQUEYOUXIANGLAIBUNIZINEIYANGHUAIZHEQIANGLIEDEZONGJIAOGANQING,BAKEXUEDANGZUOYIZHONGZONGJIAOSHIMINGLAIWANCHENGDEREN。DANWULUNRUHE,ZHEIZHONGBASHANGDIZHIYUSHUXUEBENTILUNZHONGXINDESHENXUEJIAXINGERSHANGXUEDESHUXUEZHEXUETIXIDUITANSUOZHENZHENGDESHUXUEBENZHIXINGCHENGLEYIZHONGZHANGAI,YINWEITAYANGAI、YANSHILESHUXUEJINBUDEZHENSHIXINGHESHUXUEZHENLIDEXIANGDUIXING,ERDAIZHIYIYIBUWANMEIDEXUJIADESHUXUESHENQU,XINGCHENGLESHUXUEZHENLIGUANNIANXUDUOLISHIXINGDEPIANCHAHEWUQU。

                            信用棋牌SAN、BOLATUZHUYISHUXUEZHENLISHENQUDEZHONGJIE

                            BEIZHONGDUOSHUXUEJIASUOMIAOHUIHEZANMEIDESHANGDI、ZIRANYUSHUXUEDESANWEIYITIBEIKAIPULEYONGJIANJIEDEYUYANJIAYIGAIKUO:“DUIWAIBUSHIJIEJINXINGYANJIUDEZHUYAOMUBIAOZAIYUFAXIANSHANGDIFUYUTADEHELICIXUYUHEXIE,ERZHEIXIESHISHANGDIYISHUXUEYUYANTOULUJIWOMENDE。”[1](P22)DANZHEIFUSANWEIYITIDESHENGHUAGUOZHENRUCIWANMEIMA?SUIZHERENMENYONGSHUXUEYUYANDUIZIRANJIEJINXINGDESHENRUYANJIU,SUOJIESHICHUDEZHENLIYUZONGJIAOJIAOYICHUXIANYUELAIYUEDUODEBUYIZHIHECHONGTU。TIANWENXUEZUOWEIGUANYUYUZHOUJIEGOUJIXINGQIUYUNXINGGUILVDEXUESHUO,YOUYUSHITANMINGSHANGDIYITUJILIJIESHANGDIRUHECHUANGZAOSHIJIEDEYOULISHOUDUANERSHOUDAOGEWAIDEZHONGSHI。RANERZAIZHEIYISHANGDI、ZIRANFAZE、SHUXUEJIAOHUIDELINGYU,KEXUESHOUXIANKAISHIXIANGSHENXUEJIAOYITICHUTIAOZHAN,ERZHENGSHIBEIZHONGDUOXUEZHECHONGSHANGBINGJIAYISHENHUADESHUXUEKAISHIQIDUIMOUXIEZONGJIAOXINTIAODEFOUDINGLICHENG。DANGGEBAINITICHUQIRIXINSHUOSHI,ZAISHIJIGUANCEZHONGBINGBUBITUOLEMIDEDIXINSHUOGENGYOUSHUOFULI,WEIYIZHICHIRIXINSHUODEZHISHIQILILUNDESHUXUEJIESHIHEBIAODAGENGJIANJIE、HEXIEHEYOUYA!SUIRANGEBAINI、KAIPULE、JIALILVEDOUSHIQIANCHENGDETIANZHUJIAOTU,DANDANGCONGSHUXUEDAOCHUDEZIRANFAZEYURENSHIYUZHOUZHONGXINDESIXIANGXIANGDICHUSHI,TAMENHAOBUYOUYUDIFANGQICUOWUDEJIAOYI。YOUCICHANSHENGLEKEXUEYUSHENXUEDEYANZHONGFENQI,KEXUELIXINGYUSHENXUELIXINGZAIRENSHIMUDEDENGFANGMIANXIANSHICHUQINEIZAIXINGDECHAYIHEBUXIANGRONG,ZHEICHENGWEIJINDAIKEXUEYUSHENXUEDEFENSHUILING。ERBAOSHOUDEZONGJIAOSHILIBIANLUCHUQIBUKEQINFANDE、LENGKUXUWEIDE、BUKEXIEDUDEMIANMU,YIJIQIBISHIKEXUE、KONGJUZHENLIDECHOUEBENXING。BULUNUOBEIJIAOHUISHAOSIZAILUOMADEXIANHUAGUANGCHANG,JIALILVEBEILUOMAZONGJIAOCAIPANSUOPANCHUZHONGSHENJIANJIN。ZHEIXIEPOHAIKEXUEJIADESHILIJIQIWOMENDUIFANDONG、HEIAN、CANBAODEZONGJIAOBAOSHOUSHILIDECHOUHENHEKONGSU。

                            RANER,ZONGJIAODEWUYUNZHONGJIUZHEDANGBUZHUKEXUEZHENLIDEGUANGMANG。MIZUZHENGUIDESHI,NEIXIEZHUIQIUZIRANYUSHUXUEZHENLIDEKEXUEJIAZAISHENXUEJIAOTIAOYUZIRANZHENLIZHIJIANYIRANZUOCHUJUEZE:BINGQIYUZIRANZHENLIXIANGWEIBEIDEJIAOYI。JINDAIKEXUEDEBENZHIZHENGSHIZAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGZUICHUXINGSHISHANGYUSHENXUESIXIANGXIEDIAO、RONGHEERZAIQIJINCHENGZHONGZHUJIANYUSHENXUEJUELIEDELISHITAISHIZHONGQUELIQILAIDE。ZAIZHEIYANGYIZHONGKANCHENGRENLEIWENMINGSHISHANGZUIJUJUEDINGYIYIDELIANGGUDUILISIXIANGDEJIAOLIANGZHONG,KEXUEZHUJIANQUDEQIDIWEIERSHENXUEBUDEBULVLVZUOCHURANGBU。

                            信用棋牌CONGGEBAINISHIDAIJIUKAISHIBEIGUANGWEIYINCHANGDESHUXUE、KEXUE、ZIRAN、SHENXUEDEDUOZHONGZOUXUQUDAONIUDUNSHIDAIZHONGYUBEIHUASHANGLEYIGEJUDADEXIUZHIFU。BEIZHONGDUOSHUXUEJIASUOXINFENGDESHUXUE—SHENXUE—ZIRANYUZHOUGUANBEINIUDUNTUIDAOLEYIGEDINGDIAN,TONGSHIYEZHENGSHIZAINIUDUNDEKEXUETIXIZHONGZHUJIANTUNQUQIXIRIDEGUANGZEERZOUXIAPOLULE。NIUDUNZHUMINGDEGUANYUSHANGDIDIYITUIDONGDEJIASHE(YINXUNYALISHIDUODEDE)BIAOMIANSHANGFUYULESHENXUEJUEDINGXINGDE、JUEDUISHIJIEDEQUANLIHEYIYI。SUIRANNIUDUNXIANGXINSHANGDICHUANGZAODESHIJIEYUSHUXUEYUANLIXIANGWENHE,BINGQIEQUEXINSHANGDISHIYIGEQUANNENGDESHUXUEJIAHEWULIXUEJIA,SUIRANNIUDUNDUISHENXUEDEXINGQUSHITAJINXINGSHUXUEHEKEXUEYANJIUDEZHENZHENGDONGLI,RUNIUDUNSUOYAN,KEXUEYESHICHONGBAISHANGDIDEYIZHONGXINGSHI,SUIRANNIUDUNWANNIANFANGQIKEXUEERZHUANXIANGLIANJINSHUYUSHENXUEYANJIU,DANSHI,ZAINIUDUNZIJUEDEKEXUEYANJIUHUODONGZHONG,TASUOYILAIDESHISHUXUEERBUSHISHENXUE。YOUQIDANGNIUDUNBASHANGDIDUIYUZHOUZHIXUDEKONGZHIHECAOZONGBIYUWEIZHONGBIAOJIANGXIAODUISHIZHONGBINGSHANGXIANSHI,NIUDUNQISHISHIZAIANSHISHANGDIBINGFEIWANMEIHEWANNENG。BIJIALILVEZHEIWEIWUWEIDEKEXUEJIAGENGYINHUIYIXIE,NIUDUNSUIKOUTOUSHANGSHENGCHENGSHANGDIZHIZAOLEDIYITUIDONGLI,DANZAI《ZIRANZHEXUEDESHUXUEYUANLI》ZHEIBUZHUZUOZHONG,NIUDUNSUOJIANCHIDEYUANZESHICHAOZHEDUIZIRANXIANXIANGYICHUNSHUXUEDEJIESHIZHEIYIFANGMIANMAIJIN,ERSHANGDISHISHISHANGYIBEIYUELAIYUEDUODIPAICHIZAIKEXUELILUNZHIWAILE。

                            ZAINIUDUNKAICHUANGCHUCHENGSHUDEJINGDIANLIXUETIXIHOU,SHUXUEYUSHENXUEDEMIYUEQIBIANKAISHIJIEJINWEISHENG。17SHIJIMO18SHIJICHU,SUIZHEWEIJIFENDEDANSHENG,SHUXUEJINRULEYIGEZHANXINDELISHIFAZHANSHIQI。ZAIGUXILASHUXUE、WENYIFUXINGSHIQISHUXUEYIJIJIDUJIAOWENHUAJICHUZHISHANGGOUZHUQILAIDESHUXUE—SHENXUE—ZIRANYITIHUAZHENLITIXIJIQIXINGERSHANGXUEBAOLEIKAISHIBOLUOHETANTA。YUCONGGEBAINIDAONIUDUNZHEIYISHIQIDESHUXUEJIAXIANGBI,18SHIJIYILAISHUXUEJIADEGONGZUODEYIGEMINGXIANTUCHUDESIXIANGTEZHENGJIUSHIZHUBUCONGSHUXUEJIANGYUZHONGQUZHUZOUSHENXUEDEYOULING。SUIZHESHUXUEYUKEXUEDUIZIRANDEJIESHIYUELAIYUEHELI,DUIJISHUHEXIANSHIDEYINGYONGSHUIPINGYUELAIYUEGAO,YIZHONGJUYOUKEXUENEIZAISHENGZHANG、FAYU、YUNZUOJIZHIDEZIRANLIXINGZHUYIHESHUXUELIXINGZHUYIDERENSHILUNYILAOGUDIJIANLIQILAI。XIANGBIZHIXIA,ZAIBENTILUNHERENSHILUNZHONGSHANGDIDEZUOYONGHECUNZAIYIBUZAIZHONGYAO。

                            信用棋牌NIUDUNZHIHOU,SUIZHEXIFANGZIBENZHUYIJINGJIHEKEXUEJISHUDEXUNSUFAZHAN,QIMENGZHUYIYUNDONGDAILAIJINYIBUDESIXIANGJIEFANG,ZONGJIAOZAIZHENGGESHEHUISIXIANGYUSHENGHUOZHONGYINGXIANGLIDEXUERUO,JIAZHISHUXUEZHISHIDEZENGZHANG,JISHUXUEZHENLIDERENSHIDAILAILEXUDUOGENBENXINGDEBIANGE,ZHEIZHONGRENSHIJINBUJINGUANSHIWEIMIAODE,DANQUESHISHENKEDEHEJUYOUBENZHIYIYIDE。LIRUGAOSIZHEIWEIWEIDADESHUXUEJIASUIYE“QUEXINYOUYIGEWUSHIBUZAI、WUSUOBUZHI、WUSUOBUNENGDESHANGDI,DANQUERENWEISHANGDIYUSHUXUEJIYUZHOUDESHUXUEGUILVTANSUOMEIYOUSIHAOLIANXI”[1](P66)。GAOSIYONG《LIERWANG》ZHONGDESHIJU“NI,ZIRAN,WODENVSHEN,WOYAOWEINIDEGUILVERXIANSHEN”ZUOWEIQIXINFENGDEGEYAN,KEYIKUIDANGSHISHUXUEJIAZHEXUESIXIANGDEQIANYUE。19SHIJICHU,DANGZHUMINGFAGUOSHUXUEJIAFULIYEXUANCHENG:“DUIZIRANJIEDESHENKEYANJIUSHISHUXUEZUIFURAODEYUANQUAN”,DANGZHUMINGDELAPULASIXUANCHENG:“ZIRANXIANXIANGSHIWEISHUBUDUODEYIXIEYONGHENGFAZEDESHUXUETUILUN”SHI,SHUXUEYIJINGZHAODAOLEZIJIZAIDANGSHIFAZHANSHUIPINGXIAZUISHIHEDEYANJIUDUIXIANG——ZIRANXIANXIANGJIQIGUILV。BOLATUCENGSHENXIN:“SHUDELILIANGBIANJIQUANBUKEJIANSHIJIE。DANSHISHUDEXINGERSHANGXUEBENZHIBUKENENGKAORENHEKEJIANXIANXIANGLAIJIESHI。”[7](P276)ER19 SHIJIDESHUXUEJIAZHIJIEBAZIRANZUOWEISHUXUEDEYANJIUDUIXIANG。YUJINDAISHUXUERIYISHENKEFENGFUDEYUYANXIANGBI,ZAIMIAOHUIWEIDADEZIRANLILIANGSHI,SHENXUEDEYUYANXIANDENEIMEANDAN、CANGBAIHEWULI。DANGXIHUANSHUXUEDENAPOLUNZHIWENLAPULASIWEISHENMEZAITADEZHUZUOZHONGMEITIDAOSHANGDISHI,LAPULASIDEHUIDASHI:“BIXIA,WOBUXUYAONEIGEQIANTI。”[8](P327 )YUSHENXUEGUANGZETONGYANGXIAOTUNDEHAIYOUBOLATUZHUYIDESHUXUEGUAN。BOLATUCENGYONGLAIXIANGXUWUZHUYIFANANDEDANTONGYANGNEIYUNZHEXUHUANCHENGFENDECHAOYUEZIRAN、CHAOYUERENXINGDEYONGHENGBUBIAN、JUEDUIQUEDINGDELINIANSHIJIEJIXINGERSHANGXUEXINYANGSHOUDAOLEZICHANSHENGYILAIZUIYANLIDEZHIYI。

                            DEQUE,ZAIFULIYEDEPANDUANZHONG,YIGEXINDEZHENLILEIXINGCHUXIANLE,ZHEIJIUSHISHUXUEYUZIRANKEXUEDELIANMENG。YOUCI,SHUXUEZHENLIJIQIJIAZHIPANDUANHUODELEZIWENYIFUXINGYILAIYIZHONGXINDEYIYI,YIZHONGZHUJIANBAITUOSHENXUESHUFUHEBOLATUXINGERSHANGXUETIXIDE、ZAICHUNCUIKEXUEYIYISHANGJIANLIQILAIDESHUXUEXINLINIANCHULUDUANNI。CONGSHENXUEDIANTANGHUANHUANZOUXIADESHUXUEWANGZI,CHEXIALESHENSHANGHUALI、XUHUANHEJIAOSHIDESHENXUEWAIYI,KAISHITOURUDAZIRANDEHUAIBAO,BINGCHENGWEIZIRANKEXUEDECHONGER。SHUXUEZUOWEIKEXUEDIANFANDEXINGXIANGKAISHIBEIZHENGGESHEHUIWENHUASUOJIESHOU。CONGGEBAINIDERIXINSHUO、DIKAERDESHUXUEFANGFALUN、NIUDUNDESHUXUEHUADEWULISHIJIE,DAOZIRANKEXUESHUXUEHUA、MAIKESIWEIDEDIANCILILUN、AIYINSITANDEXIANGDUILUN、LIANGZILIXUE、DABAOZHAYUHEIDONGLILUN,SHUXUEDOUSHIJIQIZHONGYAODEYUYANHEGONGJU。BATEFEIERDEZHEIYANGPINGJIADAO:“MEIYOUSHUXUEDECHENGJIU,KEXUEGEMINGSHIBUKENENGDE。”[4](P60)

                            信用棋牌17SHIJI,XIANGXUDUOSHUXUEJIAYIYANG,LAIBUNIZIDEXINYANGSHI“SHANGDISHIZUIGAOJIDESHUXUEJIA”。DAOLE20SHIJI,ZHUMINGWULIXUEJIABOERDEXUANYANSHI:“WOMENBUNENGGAOSUSHANGDI,RUHEXINGCHENGYUZHOU。”[6](P249)ZHEIZHONGZHISHANGDIYUZIRANSHEJIYUFAXIANZIRANFAZEZHIWAIDEJIANJIEXUANGAOLEYIZHONGKEXUEYIYISHANGRENSHILUNDECHENGSHU。HUIMOUJINDAISHUXUEYUKEXUEDEFAZHANSHI,SHUXUEYUKEXUEDEJINBUYIYIBUBUBAYUANBENSHUYUSHENXUEDEHUAYUFANCHOUHELINGDIBODUODAIJIN。19SHIJIDAERWENDEJINHUALUNHE20SHIJIXIANDAITIANWENXUEYANJIUYIPOSHISHENXUEJIAOYIZHONGGUANYUYUZHOU、ZIRANYURENDEGEZHONGLUNDIANTUIDAOSHANQIONGSHUIJIN、WULUKETUIDEDIBU。1981NIAN,ZAIFANDIGANGZHAOKAIDEYICIYUZHOUDAHUISHANG,JIAOHUANGYUEHAN·BAOLUOERSHISHITUZAI“DABAOZHA”CHUHUACHUYITIAOKEXUEYUSHENXUEDEFENJIEXIAN。ZAIJIANGYANZHONGJIAOHUANGDUIZAIZUODEKEXUEJIAJIANYI:“ZAIDABAOZHAZHIHOUDEYUZHOUYANHUASHIKEYIYANJIUDE,DANSHIWOMENBUYINGGAIQUGUOWENDABAOZHABENSHEN,YINWEINEISHICHUANGSHENGDESHIKE,YINERSHISHANGDIDESHIWU。”[9](P110)ERSHISHISHANG, ZHUMINGDESHIDIFEN·HUOJINZAINEICIHUIYISHANGYANJIANGDEZHUTI:KONGJIAN—SHIJIANSHIYOUXIANERWUJIEDEKENENGXING,JIUBIAOMINGMEIYOUKAIDUAN、MEIYOUCHUANGSHENGDESHIKE。RUGUOHUOJINDE“WUBIANJIE”LILUNSHIZHENGQUEDE,WOMENZHENBUZHIDAOSHENXUEDUIYUZIRANZHENLIHAIYOUSHENMEFAYANQUAN!

                            XIFANGJIDUJIAODESHENGMINGHUOLIZHIYIZHENGZAIYUQIBUDUANGAIBIANZIJI,SHENZHIBUXIYIXIUZHENGJIAOYIWEIDAIJIALAISHIYINGBIANHUADESHIJIE。HUAITEHAIBIAOMINGLEZHEIYIDIAN:“YIBANSHUOLAI,KEXUEMEIQIANJINYIBU,BIANZHENGMINGGEZHONGZONGJIAOXINNIANDEBIAOXIANFANGSHIXUYAOZUOCHUMOUZHONGXIUZHENG。TAMENKENENGXUYAOJIAYIKUOCHONG、JIESHIHUOWANQUANYONGLINGYIZHONGFANGSHIJIAYIXUSHU。”[10](P180)XIANZAIKANLAI,ZONGJIAOYUKEXUEDEDUILIYUCHONGTUDEYIGEHENZHONGYAODEYUANYINSHIZONGJIAOBABENBUSHUYUZIJILINGYUDESHIWUDANGZUOZISHENSHIMINGLAIWANCHENGZAOCHENGDE。CONGWENHUASHIJIAODUKAN,SHENHUA、WUSHUDOUCENGSHITUJIYUZHOUQIYUANYUZIRANYANHUAYIGEJIESHI,ZONGJIAOYEHAOBULIWAIDIQITUHUIDAZHEIGEQISHIZIJIWUFAZHENGQUEHUIDAERZHINENGYOUKEXUELAIHUIDADEWENTI。SHUXUEYUYIQIEKEXUEYIYANG,BINGFEIYOUYIYUSHENXUEZUODUI。YUGEZHONGBUTONGZONGJIAOJITONGYIZONGJIAOBUTONGPAIXIYONGWUXIUZHIDEZHENGCHAONAIZHIZHANZHENGGENBENBUTONGDESHI,KEXUEZHUIQIUDEZUIGAOJINGJIESHIZHENLI。SHUXUEYUKEXUEZHISUOYIZHIZEBINGJIUZHENGSHENXUEJIAOTIAO,SHIYINWEIFAXIANSHENXUELUNZHENGZHONGDEMIUWU。KAXIERQINGCHUDIKANDAO:“ZONGJIAOZICHENGYONGYOUYIZHONGJUEDUIZHENLI;DANSHITADELISHIQUESHIYIBUYOUZHEGEZHONGCUOWUHEXIESHUODELISHI。”[7](P93)ZONGJIAOZUOWEIRENLEILISHIYIZHONGJIQIFUZADEJINGSHENXIANXIANGHESHEHUIXIANXIANG,YOUQICUNZAIDEHELIXING。SHUXUEHEKEXUEWUYIQUDAISHENXUE,YEBINGBUXIANGBIANDIZONGJIAOZAISHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGTEBIESHIZAIDAODE、LUNLI、XINLINGDENGFANGMIANDEZUOYONGHEJIAZHI。

                            CONGWENYIFUXINGYILAISHUXUEYUKEXUEDEFAZHANKAN,SHUXUEJIAHEKEXUEJIADOUBUTONGCHENGDUDICONGJIDUJIAOWENHUAZHONGJIQULEXUDUOYOUYIDEYANGLIAO,DANTONGSHIYEBUKEBIMIANDISHOUDAOQIXIAOJIMIANDEYINGXIANG。LIRU,AIYINSITANYUBOERGUANYULIANGZILIXUEYOUGUOZHANGDAJISHINIANDEZHENGLUN。ZHIDAOQUSHIQIAN,AIYINSITANRENGWEIFANGQIYINGUOLUNERJIESHOUGUANYULIANGZIXINGWEIDE“HUBUYUANLI”,YINWEIZAIAIYINSITANKANLAI,SHANGDIJIQISUOCHUANGZAOSHIJIEDEQUEDINGXINGSHIBURONGHUAIYIDE。AIYINSITANDEMINGYANSHI“SHANGDIBUZHITOUZI”。AIYINSITANZHEIYIJIYUZONGJIAOXINNIANJICHUSHANGDERENSHISHIQIJIXIANGDUILUNHOUXUNQIUWANZHENGDETONGYICHANGLUNWEIHUOCHENGGONGDEZHONGYAOYUANYINZHIYI。

                            信用棋牌KEXUESHIJISHENHUA、WUSHU、ZONGJIAOZHIHOURENLEIWENHUADEYIZHONGBIRANXUANZE。KAXIERZANYUDAO:“KEXUESHIRENDEZHILIFAZHANZHONGDEZUIHOUYIBU,BINGQIEKEYIBEIKANCHENGSHIRENLEIWENHUAZUIGAOZUIDUTEDECHENGJIU……ZAIWOMENXIANDAISHIJIEZHONG,ZAIMEIYOUDIERZHONGLILIANGKEYIYUKEXUESIXIANGDELILIANGXIANGPIDI。TABEIKANCHENGSHIWOMENQUANBURENLEIHUODONGDEDINGDIANHEJIZHI,BEIKANCHENGSHIRENLEILISHIDEZUIHOUPIANZHANGHERENDEZHEXUEDEZUIZHONGYAOZHUTI。”[ 7] (P263)KAXIERDESHANGSHUPINGJIAHUOXUYOUXIEYIMEILE。ZAIWOMENKANLAI,YURENLEIQITAWENHUACHUANGZAOYIYANG,SHUXUEHEYIQIEKEXUEZAIQIGEGELISHISHIQIDOUYOUQIZISHENDEJUXIANXING,SHENZHISHISHUANGRENJIAN。ZHIGUANZHONGYAODESHI,DANGWOMENZHONGYUQUSANLEPIAODANGZAIKEXUESHANGKONGDESHENXUEWUAIHOU,BIXUZHONGZHIYIZHONGLISHIDEEXINGXUNHUANXIANXIANG,JIDANGYIZHONGWENHUACHENGWEIQIANGSHIWENHUAHOU,QIZISHENKAISHIYUJIQILAIDEWENHUADUOXINGBINGZHUJIANTUIBIANWEIZUAIXINDEWENMINGLILIANGDEBAOSHOUSHILI。WEICI,BIXUJINFANGPAOZHIGUANYUSHUXUEYUKEXUEXINDESHENHUABINGXIANRUXINYILUNDEMANGCONGYUCHONGBAI。WOMENREAIKEXUE,DANBUMIXIN、BIHUTA。SHUXUESHIRENLEIFUYOUCHENGXIAODESIXIANGCHENGGUOHEJINGSHENCAIFU,DANQUEBUSHIJUEDUIZHENLIDEHUASHEN。TABINGBUXIANGJIALILVESUOSHUODENEIYANG“MEIJUMEIXINGDOUSHISHENSHENGBUKEQINFANDE”。ZUOWEIRENCONGSHIDECHUANGZAOXINGHUODONG,SHUXUEBUKEBIMIANHUICHUCUO,YINCITAYINGSHIKEYIXIUZHENG、BUDUANJINHUADE,XINGONGJUYUFANGFABUDUANDITIDAIJIUDEGUOSHIDEDONGXI。《SHENGJING》SHANGSHUO,SHANGDICHUANGZAORENLEIYISHI,YOUYUYADANGYUXIAWASHOUSHEDEYINYOUTOUSHIJINGUOERBEIYEHEHUAQUCHUYIDIANYUANBINGBIANWEIFANREN。JIRANRENBUSHISHEN,NEIMEJIURANGSHUXUEHEYIQIEKEXUECHENGWEIMEIYOURENHEJINQU、JIELV、SIXIANGXIANDINGHEJINGSHENJIASUODECHONGMANRENXINGERFEISHENXINGDEZIYOULEYUANBA!WEILEHUOQU“ZHENLI”ZHEIYIRENSHIJIANZUIZHENGUI、ZUIYOUJIAZHIDEDONGXI,RENLEIBIXUERQIEZHINENGZHEIMEZUO。

                            YUANWENCANKAOWENXIAN:

                            信用棋牌[1] [MEI]M·KELAIYIN.SHUXUE:QUEDINGXINGDESANGSHI[M].ZHANGSHA:HUNANKEXUEJISHUCHUBANSHE,1997.

                            信用棋牌[2] [YI]JIALIN.YIDALIRENWENZHUYI[M].BEIJING:SHENGHUO·DUSHU·XINZHISANLIANSHUDIAN,1998.

                            信用棋牌[3] [MEI]TILI.XIFANGZHEXUESHI:SHANGCE[M].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1975.

                            信用棋牌[4] [MEI]BABO.KEXUEYUSHEHUIZHIXU[M].BEIJING:SHENGHUO·DUSHU·XINZHISANLIANSHUDIAN,1991.

                            信用棋牌[5] [MEI]M·KELAIYIN.GUJINSHUXUESIXIANG:DI2JUAN[M].SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIKEXUEJISHUCHUBANSHE,1979.

                            信用棋牌[6] Wilhelm Magnus.SHUXUEDEYIYI:ZAIQUANBURENLEIHUODONGZHONGSHUXUEJIAZHANYOUDEFENE[J].SHUXUEYILIN,1997(3).

                            [7] [DE]KAXIER.RENLUN[M].SHANGHAI:SHANGHAIYIWENCHUBANSHE,1985.

                            [8] [MEI]YIFUSI.SHUXUESHIGAILUN[M].TAIYUAN:SHANXIJINGJICHUBANSHE,1986.

                            信用棋牌[9] [YING]SHIDIFEN·HUOJIN.SHIJIANJIANSHI[M].ZHANGSHA:HUNANKEXUEJISHUCHUBANSHE,1996.

                            [10] [YING]HUAITEHAI.KEXUEYUJINDAISHIJIE[M].BEIJING:SHANGWUYINSHUGUAN,1989.

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